Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition - Feeding practices including micronutrient deficiencies prevention, control of wasting, stunting and underweight Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition
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Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Malnutrition


Mother, Infant and Young Child
Nutrition and Malnutrition

HealthPhone: Nutrition, Health, Medical Training Videos


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Malnutrition

 

Home  »  Malnutrition  »  About Malnutrition  »  Micronutrient Deficiencies

About Malnutrition

Common Micronutrient Deficiency Diseases

In order to provide more comprehensive and meaningful search results on our site, several reports are available for viewing and download directly. Kindly visit the main sites of the author organisations for more complete and updated information. We acknowledge our gratitude to the many people and sources whose work has been drawn freely upon. We thank them all. This information table is from the Sphere Project - Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response

Anaemia

 
Micronutrient deficiency disease
 

Anaemia

Nutrient deficiency
 
  • Iron deficiency

Anaemia

 

Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease
  • Pale conjunctivae (inner eyelid), nailbeds, gums, tongue, lips and skin
     
  • Tiredness
     
  • Headaches
     
  • Breathlessness
Populations at risk of becoming deficient
  • Populations from regions where malaria and intestinal parasitic infestation are prevalent
     
  • The most at risk groups are women of child-bearing age and young children
Preventive behaviours for a healthy family Increase Iron intake:
  • Eat iron-rich vegetables like cowpeas, spinach, millet, beans, pulses, pumpkin seeds and other greens
     
  • Eat meat like beef, liver, goat or chicken
     
  • Eat "iron helpers" such as guava, oranges, lemon or little meat to help your body use the iron
     
  • Try not to eat "iron blockers" like tea, coffee and milk for one hour before and one hour after eating an iron-rich meal
     
Prevent malaria:
  • Sleep under treated mosquito nets
     
  • Get treated for malaria immediately
     
Prevent hookworm:
  • Take de-worming tablets twice a year
     
  • Wear shoes to avoid hookworm
     
  • Dispose faeces properly
     
  • Wash your hands and your nails thoroughly before preparing food and eating
     
Take iron tablets as directed by a health worker:
  • Pregnant women should take one tablet of iron and folic acid every day for six months

 

Goitre and Cretinism

 
Micronutrient deficiency disease

Goitre and Cretinism

Nutrient deficiency
 
  • Iodine deficiency

Goitre
 

Goitre and Cretinism

 

Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease

Goitre:

  • Grade 0: No palpable (can't feel) or visibly enlarged thyroid
     
  • Grade 1: A palpable but not visibly enlarged thyroid with neck in normal position
     
  • Grade 2:  A palpably and visibly enlarged thyroid with neck in normal position

Cretinism:

Neurological cretinism:
  • Mental deficiency
     
  • Deaf mutism
     
  • Spasticity
     
  • Ataxia (lack of muscular coordination)
     
Hypothyroid cretinism:
  • Dwarfism
     
  • Hypothyroidism
Populations at risk of becoming deficient
  • Populations from mountainous areas where there is limited access to seafoods and iodised salt
     
  • Goitre is highest in adolescence, particularly girls
Preventive behaviours for a healthy family
  • Purchase packaged iodized salt
     
  • Store packaged iodized salt faraway from heat and from moisture
     
  • Add salt before serving the food

 

Xerohthalmia

 

Micronutrient deficiency disease

Xerohthalmia

Nutrient deficiency
 
  • Vitamin A deficiency

Xerohthalmia - Bitot's Spot
Bitot's Spot
 

Corneal Ulcerations - Keratomalacia
Corneal Ulcerations - Keratomalacia
 

Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease
  • Night blindness
     
  • Eye dryness accompanied by foamy accumulations on the conjunctiva (inner eyelids), that often appear near the outer edge of the iris (Bitot's spots)
     
  • Eye dryness, dullness or clouding (milky appearance) of the cornea (corneal xerosis)
     
  • Eye softening and ulceration of the cornea (keratomalacia). This is sometimes followed by perforation of the cornea, which leads to the loss of eye contents and permanent blindness
Populations at risk of becoming deficient
  • Populations who have no access to fresh fruit and vegetables
     
  • Children suffering from measles, diarrhoea, respiratory infections, chickenpox and other severe infections are at increased risk
Preventive behaviours for a healthy family
  • Increase Vitamin A intake through consumption of yellow and orange fruits and vegetables
     
  • Mothers should take Vitamin A within 8 weeks after giving birth (200,000 IU)
     
  • Children from 6 to 59 months should get Vitamin A supplementation orally every six months. (6 months - 1 year; 100,000 IU, >1 year; 200,000 IU)
     
  • Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months and continue to be breastfed up to twenty-four months

Images from:
The Sphere Project: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response: Nutrition Training Modules 2004

Nutrition Module Session 6: Handout 1a
Revolving MDDs - Question and Answer Form



18 November, 2014
 


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