Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition - Feeding practices including micronutrient deficiencies prevention, control of wasting, stunting and underweight
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Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Malnutrition

Mother, Infant and Young Child
Nutrition and Malnutrition

HealthPhone: Nutrition, Health, Medical Training Videos


Vikaspedia: Reaching the ‘un-reached’ communities of India

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Many of the things we need can wait.


The fight against persistent underweight, stunting and wasting among children in developing countries is based on appropriate maternal, infant and young child feeding practices including micronutrient deficiencies prevention and control. However, wasted children are those at immediate risk of dying and will need timely detection and correct management for their survival.

More than half of all child deaths are associated with malnutrition, which weakens the body's resistance to illness. Poor diet, frequent illness, and inadequate or inattentive care of young children can lead to malnutrition.

If a woman is malnourished during pregnancy, or if her child is malnourished during the first two years of life, the child's physical and mental growth and development may be slowed. This cannot be made up when the child is older – it will affect the child for the rest of his or her life.

Children have the right to a caring, protective environment and to nutritious food and basic health care to protect them from illness and promote growth and development.



There's plenty of food. Too much of it is going to feed animals, too much of it is being converted to fuel and too much of it is being wasted.




On this site you will find comprehensive information, resources, tools and videos:

For the Whole Community

  • Healthy Nutrition
    Contains practical and easy-to-understand information about the principles of healthy nutrition.

  • Malnutrition
    Contains a simple explanation about malnutrition and an overview about the malnutrition situation in India and Maharashtra for the general public.

  • Nutrition in the Context of HIV/AIDS
    The HIV pandemic and the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding pose unique challenges to promotion of breastfeeding. It is important to promote HIV Individual counselling and Testing among all pregnant and lactating women.

For Practitioners and Program Managers

  • Protection, Promotion and Support of Healthy Maternal, Infant and Young Child Feeding
    This section looks at healthy nutrition from a programmatic point of view. It includes links with high impact nutrition interventions and an introduction on the ENA approach to support planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of high-impact nutrition interventions.

  • Early Detection and Referral of Children with Malnutrition
    Looks at feasible ways to timely detect and refer children with malnutrition from primary health care units and communities. It is intended to increase coverage through active case finding and referral of children with malnutrition at all contact points before the onset of life threatening complications.

  • Management of Child Malnutrition
    Looks at the severely malnourished, with an in-patient outline based on WHO standards and updates from Professor Michael Golden and an out-patient outline based mainly on the Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC) Field Manual by the CTC Research and Development program (collaboration between Valid International and Concern Worldwide).

  • Information Management Systems
    Provides insights on key indicators and means of verification.


Key Facts - WHO: Infant and Young Child Feeding Fact Sheet - updated January 2016
  • Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  • Undernutrition is associated with 45% of child deaths.

  • Globally in 2013, 161.5 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted, 50.8 million were estimated to have low weight-for-height, and 41.7 million were overweight or obese.

  • About 36% of infants 0 to 6 months old are exclusively breastfed.

  • Few children receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods; in many countries less than a fourth of infants 6–23 months of age meet the criteria of dietary diversity and feeding frequency that are appropriate for their age.

  • Over 800 000 children's lives could be saved every year among children under 5, if all children 0–23 months were optimally breastfed . Breastfeeding improves IQ, school attendance, and is associated with higher income in adult life.

  • Improving child development and reducing health costs through breastfeeding results in economic gains for individual families as well as at the national level.



Subscribe to Breastfeeding Daily

​Free email newsletter. Custom-curated news highlights, resources, tips, thought-provoking opinions,
commentary and practical advice on good practices to improve nutrition during the first 1000 days
and protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding, in your inbox daily.




Laying the Foundation for Combating Malnutrition in India
The importance of balanced nutrition and health


An initiative of HealthPhone™, conducted under the aegis of Indian Academy of Pediatrics, in partnership with the Ministry of Women and Child Development, UNICEF, Aamir Khan and with support from Vodafone.

It is the World's Largest Programme to Battle Malnutrition amongst Mothers and Children. The objective of this nationwide campaign against malnutrition is to address issues of status of women, the care of pregnant mothers and children under two, breastfeeding and the importance of balanced nutrition and health. The focus is on women between 13 and 35 years of age and their family members.

The four Poshan videos are hosted on a dedicated WAP page iaphealthphone.org and accessible to all Vodafone India subscribers on their mobile phones.

Vodafone India subscribers can also give a missed call on 1 800 120 8989 (toll-free) to receive a link to the WAP page via SMS.



If breastfeeding did not already exist, ...

The Lancet Breastfeeding SeriesThe Lancet Breastfeeding Series

January 28, 2016 - With a substantial development of research and findings for breastfeeding over the past three decades, we are now able to expand on the health benefits for both women and children across the globe. The two papers in this Series will describe past and current global trends of breastfeeding, its short and long-term health consequences for the mother and child, the impact of investment in breastfeeding, and the determinants of breastfeeding and the effectiveness of promotion interventions.

New Research Shows That Breastfeeding Matters Everywhere and Could Save Millions of Lives and Dollars

"Political commitment and investment in breastfeeding by governments, donors, employers and civil society is urgently needed to ensure the health of women and children and to shape a more sustainable future for all. UNICEF and the World Health Organization, in partnership with close to 20 organizations, are leading the charge to mobilize global action to raise political and financial investment to support breastfeeding. Together, we are working to remove barriers to breastfeeding and to give women the tools they need to make informed decisions to ensure their health and the health of their children for generations come."
Werner Schultink, Chief of Nutrition at UNICEF

Breastfeeding saves lives and it’s time for action



Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition and Household SanitationSupplement: Stop Stunting in South Asia

Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition and Household Sanitation
May 2016 - Volume 12, Issue Supplement S1 - Pages 1–259

This special issue of Maternal and Child Nutrition posits that stunting is holding back the development of South Asian children and nations. An estimated 38 percent of South Asian children have stunted growth. Stop Stunting in South Asia documents three main drivers of child stunting in the region: 1) the poor diets of children in the five years of life; 2) the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy; and 3) the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities. It also offers evidence that economic growth with commensurate investments in evidence-based programmes that place emphasis on the most vulnerable children and households hold the key to reducing child stunting at scale.

Enjoy and share Stop Stunting in South Asia, 20 open access articles by 60 authors from 25 different organizations and a photo exhibition commissioned by UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia and available at stopstunting.org.

Wiley Online Library  |  UNICEF’s website  |  Photo Exhibition



Stop Stunting


Recent global data indicate that 25% of children under five years of age (i.e. 161 million) have stunted growth.


Stop Stunting Matters

Stop Stunting Matters 35: Schooling and income losses due to child stunting in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

Stunting in early childhood is associated with reduced educational attainment, which is highly predictive of adult income. This study estimates the impact of stunting on children's educational attainment and future incomes.

The authors estimate that stunting causes a loss of 69 million years of educational attainment and $177 billion per birth cohort. Losses are largest in South Asia, with 28 million years of schooling and $47 billion lost per child cohort. The expected gains in schooling and future incomes from eliminating stunting are largest in India; $38 billion per birth cohort.

The authors conclude that further investments in scaling up interventions to stop stunting are urgently needed and likely to yield a $3 benefit for every $1 invested from improvements in educational attainment only, ont taking into account other benefits generated by improved human capital and long-term health outcomes.




Infographic: Child and maternal nutrition

Infographic: Child and Maternal Nutrition
download pdf

In the past two decades, child and maternal malnutrition has declined almost by half. Child undernutrition still imposes the greatest nutrition-related health burden at global level.

  • 161 million children are stunted due to chronic malnutrition

  • 99 million children are underweight

  • 45% of child deaths are caused by child and maternal malnutrition

Iron deficiency ANAEMIA increases the risk of pregnancy complications, impaired cognitive development and death in children and mothers. Anaemia, resulting from iron deficiency, affects 50% of pregnant women in developing countries.




Infographic: Understanding Hunger and Malnutrition

Infographic: Understanding Hunger and Malnutrition
Undernourishment or chronic hunger is the inability of persons to consume enough food sufficient to meet dietary energy requirements.
download pdf

Malnutrition is an abnormal physiological condition caused by deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in energy, protein and/or other nutrients. Undernutrition is when the body contains lower than normal amounts of one or more nutrients i.e. deficiencies in macronutrients and/or micronutrients. The most pervasive form of malnutrition to date in the poorest countries is undernutrition.


Think you know about food? Take the quiz:
10 Years of the Right to Adequate Food Guidelines - Progress, Obstacles and the Way Ahead
Food game: how well do you know the world? - interactive

To mark World Food Day, why not see if you can make your culinary knowledge bear fruit? If you know your oats from your oils, then pit your wits against our food game. With the timer eating away vital seconds, you'll need to guess where different world foods come from, rank countries by rates of undernourishment, and negotiate a tricky picture round. If you've got an appetite for the challenge, just click below to get started …

» Guess which three countries are the top producers of each food commodity
» Reorder countries according to their rates of undernourishment
» Work out which picture contains the answer to each question

  >   Play the Game


Featured Videos — All Videos

HealthPhone: Nutrition, Health, Medical Training Videos
  » Watch Videos in the Nutrition and Growth Channel on HealthPhone


What is malnutrition?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Hundreds of millions of people around the world are starving, while half a billion are obese—and they are living side by side in the same countries and the same communities. In this short video, learn more about malnutrition from FAO and WHO experts.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What is chronic hunger?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Over 800 million people in the world consistently do not get enough food to eat, and go to bed hungry. The effects of chronic hunger are irreversible, contributing to almost half of all child deaths worldwide. In this short video, learn more about chronic hunger from FAO and WHO experts.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What is hidden hunger?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Hidden hunger, or micronutrient deficiencies, occurs when the quality of food that people eat does not meet their nutrient requirements, so they are not getting the essential vitamins and minerals they need for their growth and development. It affects two billion people across the globe. In this short video, learn more about hidden hunger from FAO and WHO experts.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What is the double burden?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

The "Double Burden" is when hunger and obesity affect people within the same population.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What are food systems?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Food systems bring food from the farm to your plate. Fixing food systems is the key to ending malnutrition.

The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) is an inclusive inter-governmental meeting on nutrition jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The two main outcome documents of the conference are the Rome Declaration on Nutrition: a political commitment document, and the Framework for Action: a technical guide for implementation.


Featured Resources — All Resources

Ending Childhood Obesity

Ending Childhood Obesity

The Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity (ECHO) presented its final report to the WHO Director-General today, culminating a two-year process to address the alarming levels of childhood obesity and overweight globally.

The ECHO report proposes a range of recommendations for governments aimed at reversing the rising trend of children aged under 5 years becoming overweight and obese. At least 41 million children in this age group are obese or overweight, with the greatest rise in the number of children being obese or overweight coming from low- and middle-income countries.

Overweight prevalence among children aged under 5 years has risen between 1990 and 2014, from 4.8% to 6.1%, with numbers of affected children rising from 31 million to 41 million during that time. The number of overweight children in lower middle-income countries has more than doubled over that period, from 7.5 million to 15.5 million.

In 2014, almost half (48%) of all overweight and obese children aged under 5 lived in Asia and one-quarter (25%) in Africa. The number of overweight children aged under 5 in Africa has nearly doubled since 1990 (5.4 million to 10.3 million).



The ECHO Report has 6 main recommendations for governments

Promote intake of healthy foods

Promote physical activity

Preconception and pregnancy care

Early childhood diet and physical activity

Health, nutrition and physical activity for school-age children

Weight management

Download pdf - Final report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity

Comment - The Lancet - Ending childhood obesity: a time for action



2015 Global Nutrition Report Global Nutrition Report 2015

The Global Nutrition Report is the first comprehensive summary and scorecard on both global and country level progress on all forms of nutrition for 193 countries. The 2015 edition builds and reflects on new opportunities, actions, progress, accountability, and data for nutrition, with the aim to build greater commitment to improved nutrition in all countries.

New findings and recommendations include:
  • The critical relationship between climate change and nutrition
  • Focus on the roles of business and how it can play a pivotal role
  • Fresh data covering all forms of malnutrition – from under nutrition in young children to nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in adults, and from stunting to obesity
Infographic: Global Nutrition Report 2015

Download large version of 2015 infographic in pdf (4.4 MB)
Infographic: Global Nutrition Report 2015

The infographic uses data from the Global Nutrition Report 2015 to present a snapshot of the scale of malnutrition across the globe. It tracks country progress towards two nutrition-related World Health Assembly targets for 2025, stunting in children under-5, and obesity among adults aged 18+.

Stunting is defined as the percentage of children 0–59 months who are below minus two (moderate and severe) standard deviations from median height-for-age of the WHO Child Growth Standards

Adult obesity is defined as the percentage of defined population (adults 18+) with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or higher.
50 Numbers to Help End Malnutrition by 2030

The 2015 Global Nutrition Report contains a lot of numbers. We have been asking panellists at various launch events which they find most interesting and why. Here is our top 50 list of  statistics, organised around key points. They are intended to be useful for your briefing notes, speeches, power points, press releases, tweets, blogs, opinion pieces and conversations. Please use them — numbers are just numbers until you bring them to life to contribute to a movement for change.


Global Targets

Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Infographics
Highlighting the key messages and recommended actions


Stunting
Stunting
Download
pdf, 1.82Mb

40% reduction in the number of children under-5 who are stunted
Anaemia
Anaemia
Download
pdf, 789kb

50% reduction of anaemia in women of reproductive age
Low birth weight
Low birth weight
Download
pdf, 784kb

30% reduction in low birth weight
Overweight
Overweight
Download
pdf, 780kb

no increase in childhood overweight
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
Download
pdf, 753kb

increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at least 50%
Wasting
Wasting
Download
pdf, 744kb

reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5%​


Global Targets 2025: Poster
To improve maternal, infant and young child nutrition


Download posters: Poster A - pdf, 507kb  |  Poster B - pdf, 498kb

Icons: jpg

Stunting
Stunting
Anaemia
Anaemia
Low birth weight
Low birth weight
Overweight
Overweight
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
Wasting
Wasting

Global Targets 2025  |  Global targets 2025: Poster  |  Global targets indicators  |  Global targets tracking tool  |  Policy briefs  |  Infographics  |  Indicators  |  Tracking tool

Related information

1000 Days |  Global Nutrition Report 2014  |  Indicators for the Global Monitoring Framework on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition  |  Planning and costing nutrition actions: the OneHealth Tool  |  Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition  |  Global Nutrition Report 2014  |  EB and WHA documents



First Foods For Life
First Foods For Life
A Global Meeting, to accelerate progress on complementary feeding in Young Children
Mumbai, 17-19 November, 2015

This global meet was very timely and extremely important in the context where levels of stunting in younger children are highest in many of the developing countries. It brought together minds in the field of Child Nutrition and Public Policy to take the next big steps to realising our dream of giving each child the best shot at a fulfilling life.

Concept Note  |  Presentations  |  Videos
Summary of global presentations and recommendations

5 September, 2016
 


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