Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition - Feeding practices including micronutrient deficiencies prevention, control of wasting, stunting and underweight
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Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Malnutrition

Mother, Infant and Young Child
Nutrition and Malnutrition

HealthPhone: Nutrition, Health, Medical Training Videos


Vikaspedia: Reaching the ‘un-reached’ communities of India

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Many of the things we need can wait.


The fight against persistent underweight, stunting and wasting among children in developing countries is based on appropriate maternal, infant and young child feeding practices including micronutrient deficiencies prevention and control. However, wasted children are those at immediate risk of dying and will need timely detection and correct management for their survival.

More than half of all child deaths are associated with malnutrition, which weakens the body's resistance to illness. Poor diet, frequent illness, and inadequate or inattentive care of young children can lead to malnutrition.

If a woman is malnourished during pregnancy, or if her child is malnourished during the first two years of life, the child's physical and mental growth and development may be slowed. This cannot be made up when the child is older – it will affect the child for the rest of his or her life.

Children have the right to a caring, protective environment and to nutritious food and basic health care to protect them from illness and promote growth and development.



There's plenty of food. Too much of it is going to feed animals, too much of it is being converted to fuel and too much of it is being wasted.




On this site you will find comprehensive information, resources, tools and videos:

For the Whole Community

  • Healthy Nutrition
    Contains practical and easy-to-understand information about the principles of healthy nutrition.

  • Malnutrition
    Contains a simple explanation about malnutrition and an overview about the malnutrition situation in India and Maharashtra for the general public.

  • Nutrition in the Context of HIV/AIDS
    The HIV pandemic and the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding pose unique challenges to promotion of breastfeeding. It is important to promote HIV Individual counselling and Testing among all pregnant and lactating women.

For Practitioners and Program Managers

  • Protection, Promotion and Support of Healthy Maternal, Infant and Young Child Feeding
    This section looks at healthy nutrition from a programmatic point of view. It includes links with high impact nutrition interventions and an introduction on the ENA approach to support planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of high-impact nutrition interventions.

  • Early Detection and Referral of Children with Malnutrition
    Looks at feasible ways to timely detect and refer children with malnutrition from primary health care units and communities. It is intended to increase coverage through active case finding and referral of children with malnutrition at all contact points before the onset of life threatening complications.

  • Management of Child Malnutrition
    Looks at the severely malnourished, with an in-patient outline based on WHO standards and updates from Professor Michael Golden and an out-patient outline based mainly on the Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC) Field Manual by the CTC Research and Development program (collaboration between Valid International and Concern Worldwide).

  • Information Management Systems
    Provides insights on key indicators and means of verification.


Key Facts - WHO: Infant and Young Child Feeding Fact Sheet - updated January 2016
  • Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  • Undernutrition is associated with 45% of child deaths.

  • Globally in 2013, 161.5 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted, 50.8 million were estimated to have low weight-for-height, and 41.7 million were overweight or obese.

  • About 36% of infants 0 to 6 months old are exclusively breastfed.

  • Few children receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods; in many countries less than a fourth of infants 6–23 months of age meet the criteria of dietary diversity and feeding frequency that are appropriate for their age.

  • Over 800 000 children's lives could be saved every year among children under 5, if all children 0–23 months were optimally breastfed . Breastfeeding improves IQ, school attendance, and is associated with higher income in adult life.

  • Improving child development and reducing health costs through breastfeeding results in economic gains for individual families as well as at the national level.


“What if governments had a proven, cost-effective way to save babies’ lives, reduce rates of malnutrition, support children’s health, increase educational attainment and grow productivity?

They do: It’s called breastfeeding. And it is one of the best investments nations can make in the lives and futures of their youngest members – and in the long-term strength of their societies.”

Anthony Lake, UNICEF Executive Director



2017 Maternal Health campaign

2017 Maternal Health campaign

We recently partnered with Mediaplanet UK on the 2017 Maternal Health campaign in The Guardian newspaper and online. Read motivating insight from thought leaders and learn more about what it takes collectively to reduce maternal mortality. #GlobalMaternalHealth #MaternalHealth

Bridging the Knowledge Gap: Educating Mothers to Help Them and Their Children Live.
Mobile phones are the surprising tool improving maternal health

One of the most powerful relationships in global health and development is between a mother’s education and her child’s chances of survival. Simply put: “The more educated a mother, the less likely her child is to die. … Behind every preventable child death is a disempowered mother” says Leith Greenslade, Co-Chair of Child Health, MDG Health Alliance.



HealthPhone™ Mobile Apps

Once installed, all these apps work offline; they do not require a connection to a mobile network. All videos and files are included within the apps. Mobile apps developed in partnership with HealthPhone by The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Hyderabad, a research and development organization under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India.

Poshan | Nutrition Mobile Apps
Get HealthPhone Poshan Mobile Apps

Get HealthPhone Poshan Apps



Get in 18 Indian Languages
AssameseBengaliEnglishGaroGujaratiHindiKannadaKhasiKonkaniMalayalamManipuriMarathiMizoOdiaPunjabiTamilTeluguUrdu

These apps address issues of status of women, the care of pregnant women and children under two, breastfeeding and the importance of a balanced diet, health and simple changes in nutritional care practices that can notably enhance nutrition levels.

They reinforce the following key messages:

  • Expecting mothers should get the correct diet and 25% more than usual.
  • Mother’s first milk is the best, do not throw it away, make sure the child gets it.
  • For the first 6 months the child should only be fed mother’s milk and nothing else.
  • When the child enters the 7th month, balance mother’s milk with a nutritious diet.
 

 
Food & Nutrition Mobile Apps
Get HealthPhone Food & Nutrition Mobile Apps

Get HealthPhone Food & Nutrition Apps



Get in 18 Indian Languages
AssameseBengaliEnglishGaroGujaratiHindiKannadaKhasiKonkaniMalayalamManipuriMarathiMizoOdiaPunjabiTamilTeluguUrdu​​

These apps reinforce the following key messages:

  • Adequate Complementary Feeding
  • Anaemia: Blood and Iron Deficiency
  • Importance of a Balanced Diet
  • Correct Norms of Infant & Young Child Feeding
  • Importance of Infant and Young Child Nutrition
  • Iodine: The Importance of Iodised Salt
  • Nutrition of the Child
  • Vitamin A
  • Navjaat ki Suraksha
  • Diet During Pregnancy
  • Healthcare during Pregnancy
 

 
Nutrition Handbook for the Family Mobile Apps
Get HealthPhone Nutrition Handbook Mobile Apps

Get HealthPhone Nutrition Handbook Mobile Apps



Get in 11 Indian Languages
BengaliEnglishGujaratiHindiKannadaMalayalamMarathiOdiaTamilTeluguUrdu​​​

These apps reinforce the following key messages:

  • Personal and household hygiene
  • Keeping food safe and clean
  • Foods are very important for the body
  • Iron makes the body strong
  • Vitamin A keeps the body healthy
  • Iodine makes the body function properly
  • Food for pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers
  • Feeding babies aged 0-6 months
  • Feeding young children aged over 6 months
  • Feeding school-age children and youth
  • Food and care for older people
  • Feeding sick people
  • Preventing and managing malnutrition


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An Investment Framework for Nutrition : Reaching the Global Targets for Stunting, Anemia, Breastfeeding, and WastingAn Investment Framework for Nutrition : Reaching the Global Targets for Stunting, Anemia, Breastfeeding, and Wasting

The report estimates the costs, impacts and financing scenarios to achieve the World Health Assembly global nutrition targets for stunting, anemia in women, exclusive breastfeeding and the scaling up of the treatment of severe wasting among young children. To reach these four targets, the world needs $70 billion over 10 years to invest in high-impact nutrition-specific interventions. This investment would have enormous benefits: 65 million cases of stunting and 265 million cases of anemia in women would be prevented in 2025 as compared with the 2015 baseline. In addition, at least 91 million more children would be treated for severe wasting and 105 million additional babies would be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of life over 10 years. Altogether, achieving these targets would avert at least 3.7 million child deaths. Every dollar invested in this package of interventions would yield between $4 and $35 in economic returns, making investing in early nutrition one of the best value-for-money development actions. Although some of the targets—especially those for reducing stunting in children and anemia in women—are ambitious and will require concerted efforts in financing, scale-up, and sustained commitment, recent experience from several countries suggests that meeting these targets is feasible. These investments in the critical 1000 day window of early childhood are inalienable and portable and will pay lifelong dividends – not only for children directly affected but also for us all in the form of more robust societies – that will drive future economies.

Download   English PDF | English Summary | French Summary | Spanish Summary | Anemia technical brief | Breastfeeding technical brief | Stunting technical brief | Wasting technical brief | Economic Benefits brief | Investment Packages brief




Laying the Foundation for Combating Malnutrition in India
The importance of balanced nutrition and health


An initiative of HealthPhone™, conducted under the aegis of Indian Academy of Pediatrics, in partnership with the Ministry of Women and Child Development, UNICEF, Aamir Khan and with support from Vodafone.

It is the World's Largest Programme to Battle Malnutrition amongst Mothers and Children. The objective of this nationwide campaign against malnutrition is to address issues of status of women, the care of pregnant mothers and children under two, breastfeeding and the importance of balanced nutrition and health. The focus is on women between 13 and 35 years of age and their family members.

The four Poshan videos are hosted on a dedicated WAP page iaphealthphone.org and accessible to all Vodafone India subscribers on their mobile phones.

Vodafone India subscribers can also give a missed call on 1 800 120 8989 (toll-free) to receive a link to the WAP page via SMS.



If breastfeeding did not already exist, ...

The Lancet Breastfeeding SeriesThe Lancet Breastfeeding Series

January 28, 2016 - With a substantial development of research and findings for breastfeeding over the past three decades, we are now able to expand on the health benefits for both women and children across the globe. The two papers in this Series will describe past and current global trends of breastfeeding, its short and long-term health consequences for the mother and child, the impact of investment in breastfeeding, and the determinants of breastfeeding and the effectiveness of promotion interventions.

New Research Shows That Breastfeeding Matters Everywhere and Could Save Millions of Lives and Dollars

"Political commitment and investment in breastfeeding by governments, donors, employers and civil society is urgently needed to ensure the health of women and children and to shape a more sustainable future for all. UNICEF and the World Health Organization, in partnership with close to 20 organizations, are leading the charge to mobilize global action to raise political and financial investment to support breastfeeding. Together, we are working to remove barriers to breastfeeding and to give women the tools they need to make informed decisions to ensure their health and the health of their children for generations come."
Werner Schultink, Chief of Nutrition at UNICEF

Breastfeeding saves lives and it’s time for action



Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition and Household SanitationSupplement: Stop Stunting in South Asia

Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition and Household Sanitation
May 2016 - Volume 12, Issue Supplement S1 - Pages 1–259

This special issue of Maternal and Child Nutrition posits that stunting is holding back the development of South Asian children and nations. An estimated 38 percent of South Asian children have stunted growth. Stop Stunting in South Asia documents three main drivers of child stunting in the region: 1) the poor diets of children in the five years of life; 2) the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy; and 3) the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities. It also offers evidence that economic growth with commensurate investments in evidence-based programmes that place emphasis on the most vulnerable children and households hold the key to reducing child stunting at scale.

Enjoy and share Stop Stunting in South Asia, 20 open access articles by 60 authors from 25 different organizations and a photo exhibition commissioned by UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia and available at stopstunting.org.

Wiley Online Library  |  UNICEF’s website  |  Photo Exhibition



Stop Stunting


Recent global data indicate that 25% of children under five years of age (i.e. 161 million) have stunted growth.


Stop Stunting Matters



Infographic: Child and maternal nutrition

Infographic: Child and Maternal Nutrition
download pdf

In the past two decades, child and maternal malnutrition has declined almost by half. Child undernutrition still imposes the greatest nutrition-related health burden at global level.

  • 161 million children are stunted due to chronic malnutrition

  • 99 million children are underweight

  • 45% of child deaths are caused by child and maternal malnutrition

Iron deficiency ANAEMIA increases the risk of pregnancy complications, impaired cognitive development and death in children and mothers. Anaemia, resulting from iron deficiency, affects 50% of pregnant women in developing countries.




Infographic: Understanding Hunger and Malnutrition

Infographic: Understanding Hunger and Malnutrition
Undernourishment or chronic hunger is the inability of persons to consume enough food sufficient to meet dietary energy requirements.
download pdf

Malnutrition is an abnormal physiological condition caused by deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in energy, protein and/or other nutrients. Undernutrition is when the body contains lower than normal amounts of one or more nutrients i.e. deficiencies in macronutrients and/or micronutrients. The most pervasive form of malnutrition to date in the poorest countries is undernutrition.


Think you know about food? Take the quiz:
10 Years of the Right to Adequate Food Guidelines - Progress, Obstacles and the Way Ahead
Food game: how well do you know the world? - interactive

To mark World Food Day, why not see if you can make your culinary knowledge bear fruit? If you know your oats from your oils, then pit your wits against our food game. With the timer eating away vital seconds, you'll need to guess where different world foods come from, rank countries by rates of undernourishment, and negotiate a tricky picture round. If you've got an appetite for the challenge, just click below to get started …

» Guess which three countries are the top producers of each food commodity
» Reorder countries according to their rates of undernourishment
» Work out which picture contains the answer to each question

  >   Play the Game


Global Targets

Global Nutrition Targets 2025

Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Infographics
Highlighting the key messages and recommended actions


Stunting
Stunting
Download
pdf, 1.82Mb

40% reduction in the number of children under-5 who are stunted
Anaemia
Anaemia
Download
pdf, 789kb

50% reduction of anaemia in women of reproductive age
Low birth weight
Low birth weight
Download
pdf, 784kb

30% reduction in low birth weight
Overweight
Overweight
Download
pdf, 780kb

no increase in childhood overweight
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
Download
pdf, 753kb

increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at least 50%
Wasting
Wasting
Download
pdf, 744kb

reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5%​


Global Targets 2025: Poster
To improve maternal, infant and young child nutrition


Download posters: Poster A - pdf, 507kb  |  Poster B - pdf, 498kb

Icons: jpg

Stunting
Stunting
Anaemia
Anaemia
Low birth weight
Low birth weight
Overweight
Overweight
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
Wasting
Wasting

Global Targets 2025  |  Global targets 2025: Poster  |  Global targets indicators  |  Global targets tracking tool  |  Policy briefs  |  Infographics  |  Indicators  |  Tracking tool

Related information

1000 Days |  Global Nutrition Report 2014  |  Indicators for the Global Monitoring Framework on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition  |  Planning and costing nutrition actions: the OneHealth Tool  |  Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition  |  Global Nutrition Report 2014  |  EB and WHA documents


Featured Videos — All Videos

HealthPhone: Nutrition, Health, Medical Training Videos
  » Watch Videos in the Nutrition and Growth Channel on HealthPhone


What is malnutrition?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Hundreds of millions of people around the world are starving, while half a billion are obese—and they are living side by side in the same countries and the same communities. In this short video, learn more about malnutrition from FAO and WHO experts.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What is chronic hunger?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Over 800 million people in the world consistently do not get enough food to eat, and go to bed hungry. The effects of chronic hunger are irreversible, contributing to almost half of all child deaths worldwide. In this short video, learn more about chronic hunger from FAO and WHO experts.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What is hidden hunger?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Hidden hunger, or micronutrient deficiencies, occurs when the quality of food that people eat does not meet their nutrient requirements, so they are not getting the essential vitamins and minerals they need for their growth and development. It affects two billion people across the globe. In this short video, learn more about hidden hunger from FAO and WHO experts.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What is the double burden?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

The "Double Burden" is when hunger and obesity affect people within the same population.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
What are food systems?
Français - Chinese - Italiano

Food systems bring food from the farm to your plate. Fixing food systems is the key to ending malnutrition.

The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) is an inclusive inter-governmental meeting on nutrition jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The two main outcome documents of the conference are the Rome Declaration on Nutrition: a political commitment document, and the Framework for Action: a technical guide for implementation.


Featured Resources — All Resources

Ending Childhood Obesity

Ending Childhood Obesity

The Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity (ECHO) presented its final report to the WHO Director-General today, culminating a two-year process to address the alarming levels of childhood obesity and overweight globally.

The ECHO report proposes a range of recommendations for governments aimed at reversing the rising trend of children aged under 5 years becoming overweight and obese. At least 41 million children in this age group are obese or overweight, with the greatest rise in the number of children being obese or overweight coming from low- and middle-income countries.

Overweight prevalence among children aged under 5 years has risen between 1990 and 2014, from 4.8% to 6.1%, with numbers of affected children rising from 31 million to 41 million during that time. The number of overweight children in lower middle-income countries has more than doubled over that period, from 7.5 million to 15.5 million.

In 2014, almost half (48%) of all overweight and obese children aged under 5 lived in Asia and one-quarter (25%) in Africa. The number of overweight children aged under 5 in Africa has nearly doubled since 1990 (5.4 million to 10.3 million).



The ECHO Report has 6 main recommendations for governments

Promote intake of healthy foods

Promote physical activity

Preconception and pregnancy care

Early childhood diet and physical activity

Health, nutrition and physical activity for school-age children

Weight management

Download pdf - Final report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity

Comment - The Lancet - Ending childhood obesity: a time for action



9 August, 2017
 


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